1: WEBTEXT/32063/64873/E87IND01. htm | India The Factories Act, 1948 (Act No. 63 of 1948), as amended by the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Act 20 of 1987) CONTENTS * CHAPTER I. – Preliminary * CHAPTER II. – The Inspecting Staff * CHAPTER III. – Health * CHAPTER IV. – Safety * CHAPTER IVA. – Provisions relating to Hazardous processes * CHAPTER V. – Welfare * CHAPTER VI. – Working hours of adults * CHAPTER VII. Employment of young persons * CHAPTER VIII. – Annual leave with wages * CHAPTER IX. – Special provisions * CHAPTER X. – Penalties and procedure * CHAPTER XI. – Supplemental CHAPTER I. – Preliminary Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement. – (1) This Act may be called the Factories Act, 1948. (2) It extends to the whole of India (3) It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1949. Section 2. Interpretation. –
In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,- * (a) “adult” means a person who has completed his eighteenth year of age; * (b) “adolescent” means a person, who has completed his fifteenth year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year; * (bb) “calendar year” means the period of twelve months beginning with the first day of January in any year; * (c) “child” means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year of age; * (ca) “competent person”, in relation to any provision f this Act, means a person or an institution recognised as such by the Chief Inspector for the purposes of carrying out tests, examinations and inspections required to be done in a factory under the provisions of this Act having regard to- * (i) the qualifications and experience of the person and facilities available at his disposal, or * (ii) the qualifications and experience of the persons employed in such institution and facilities available therein, with regard to the conduct of such tests, examinations and inspections, and more than one person or institution can be recognised as a competent person in relation to a factory; * (cb) “hazardous process” means any process or activity in relation to an industry specified in the ‘First Schedule where, unless special care is taken, raw materials used therein or the intermediate or finished products, bye-products, wastes or effluents thereof would- * (i) cause material impairment to the health of the persons engaged in or connected therewith, or * (ii) result in the pollution of the general environment: Provided that the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, amend the First Schedule by way of addition, omission or variation of any industry specified in the said Schedule; * (d) “young person” means a person, who is either a child or an adolescent; * (e) “day” means a period of twenty-four hours beginning at midnight; * (f) “week” means a period of seven days beginning at midnight on Saturday night or such other night as may be approved in writing for a particular area by the Chief Inspector of Factories; * (g) “power” means electrical energy, or any other form of energy, which is mechanically transmitted and is not generated, by human or animal agency; * (h) “prime-mover” means any engine, motor or other appliance, which generates or otherwise provides power; * (i) “transmission machinery” means any shift, wheel, drum, pulley, system of pulleys, coupling, clutch, driving belt or other appliance or device by which the motion of a prime-mover is transmitted to or received by any machinery or appliance; * (j) “machinery” includes prime-movers, transmission machinery and all other appliances, whereby power is generated, transformed, transmitted or applied; * (k) “manufacturing process” means any process for- (i) making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, packing, oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up, demolishing or otherwise treating or adopting any article or substance with a view to its use, sale, transport, delivery or disposal; or * (ii) pumping oil, water, sewage, or any other substance; or * (iii) generating, transforming or transmitting power; or * (iv) composing types for printing, printing by letter press, lithography, photogravure or other similar process or book-binding; or * (v) constructing, reconstructing,, repairing, refitting, finishing or breaking up ships or vessels; or * (vi) preserving or storing any article in cold storage ; * (l) “worker” means a person employed directly or by or through any agency (including a contractor) with or without the knowledge of the principal employer whether for remuneration or not in any manufacturing process, or in cleaning any part of the machinery or premises used for a manufacturing process, or in any other kind of work incidental to, or connected with the manufacturing process, or the subject of the manufacturing process but does not include any member of the armed forces of the Union; * (m) “factory” means any premises including the precincts thereof- * (i) whereon ten or more workers are working, or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on, or * (ii) whereon twenty or more workers are working, or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on,- but does not include a mine subject to the operation of the Mines Act, 1952 (XXXV of 1952) or a mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the Union, a railway running shed or a hotel, restaurant or eating place; Explanation I. —For computing the number of workers for the purposes of this clause all the workers in different groups and relays in a day shall be taken into account; Explanation II. —For the purposes of this clause, the mere fact that an Electronic Data Processing Unit or a Computer Unit is installed in any premises or part thereof, shall not be construed to make it a factory if no manufacturing process is being carried on in such premises or part thereof ; * (n) “occupier” of a factory means the person, who has ultimate control over the affairs of the factory, Provided that- (i) in the case of a firm or other association of individuals, any one of the individual partners or members thereof shall be deemed to be the occupier; * (ii) in the case of a company, any one of the directors, shall be deemed to be the occupier: * (iii) in the case of a factory owned or controlled by the Central Government or any State Government, or any local authority, the person or persons appointed to manage the affairs of the factory by the Central Government, the State Government or the local authority, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the occupier : Provided further that in the case of a ship which is being repaired, or on which maintenance work is being carried out, in a dry dock which is available for hire, (1) the owner of the dock shall be deemed to be the occupier for the purposes of any matter provided for by or under- * (a) section 6, section 7, section 7A, section 7B, section 11 or section 12; * (b) section 17, in so far as it relates to the providing and maintenance of sufficient and suitable lighting in or around the dock; * (e) section 18, section 19, section 42, section 46, section 47 or section 49, in relation to the workers employed on such repair or maintenance; (2) the owner of the ship or his agent or master or other officer-in-charge of the ship or any person who contracts with such owner, agent or master or other officer-in-charge to carry out the repair or maintenance work shall be deemed to be the occupier for the purposes of any matter provided for by or under section 13, section 14, section 16 or section 17 (save as otherwise provided in this proviso) or Chapter IV (except section 27) or section 43, section 44 or section 45, Chapter VI, Chapter VII, Chapter VIII or Chapter IX or section 108, section 109 or section 110, in relation to- * (a) the workers employed directly by him or by or through any agency; and * (b) the machinery, plant or premises in use for the purpose of carrying out such repair or maintenance work by such owner, agent, master or other officer-in-charge or person ; * (o) [Omitted]; * (p) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made by the State Government under this Act; * (q) [Omitted]; * (r) where work of the same kind is carried out by two or more sets of orkers working during different periods of the day, each of such sets is called a “group” or “relay” and each of such periods is called a “shift”. Section 3. Reference to time of day. – In this Act references to time of day are references to Indian Standard Time being five and a half hours, ahead of Greenwich Mean Time: Provided that for any area in which Indian Standard Time is not ordinarily observed the State Government may make rules- * (a) specifying the area, * (b) defining the local mean time ordinarily observed therein, and * (c) permitting such time to be observed in all or any ofthe factories situated in the area. Section 4. Power to declare different departments to be separate factories or two or more factories to be a single factory. The State Government may, on its own or on an application made in this behalf by an occupier, direct by an order in writing and subject to such conditions as it may deem fit, that for all or any of the purposes of this Act different departments or branches of a factory of the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as separate factories or that two or more factories of the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as a single factory. Provided that no order under this section shall be made bythe State Government on its own motion unless an opportunity of being heard is given to the occupier. Section 5. Power to exempt during public emergency. –
In any case of a public emergency the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt any factory or class or description of factories from all or any of the provisions of this Act except section 67 for such period and subject to such conditions as it may think fit: Provided that no such notification shall be made for a period exceeding three months at a time. Explanation. – For the purposes of this section ‘public emergency’ means a grave emergency whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or internal disturbance. Section 6. Approval, licensing and registration of factories. – (1) The State Government may make rules- a) requiring for the purposes of this Act, the submission of plans of any class or description of factories to the Chief Inspector or the State Government ; * (aa) requiring the previous permission in writing of the State Government or the Chief Inspector to be obtained for the site on which the factory is to be situated and for the construction or extension of any factory or class or description of factories; * (b) requiring for the purpose of considering applications for such permission the submission of plans and specificatioqns; * (c) prescribing the nature of such plans and specifications and by whom they shall be certified; * (d) requiring the registration and licensing offactories, or any class or description of factories, and prescribing the fees payable for such registration and licensing and for the renewal of licences; * (e) requiring that no licence shall be granted or renewed unless the notice specified in section 7 has been given. 2) If on an application for permission referred to in clause (aa) of sub-section (1) accompanied by the plans and specifications required by the rules made under clause (b) of that sub-section, sent to the State Government or Chief Inspector by registered post, no order is communicated to the applicant within three months from the date on which it is so sent, the permission applied for in the said application shall be deemed to have been granted. (3) Where a State Government or a Chief Inspector refuses to grant permission to the site, construction or extension of a factory or to the registration and licensing of a factory, the applicant may within thirty days from the date of such refusal, appeal to the Central Government if the decision appealed for was of the State Government, and to the State Government in any other case. Explanation. – A factory shall not be deemed to be extended within the meaning of this section by reason only of the replacement of any plant or machinery, or within such limils as may be prescribed, of the addition of any plant or machinery.
If such replacement or addition does not reduce the minimum clear space required for safe working around the plant or machinery or adversely affect the environment conditions from the evolution or emission of steam, heat or dust or Iumes which are injurious to health. Section 7. Notice by occupier. – (1) The occupier shall, at least fifteen days before he begins to occupy or, use any premises as a factory, send to the Chief Inspector a written notice containing- * (a) the name and situation of the factory; * (b) the name and address of the occupier; * (bb) thc name and address of the owner of the premises or building (including the precincts thereof ) referred to in section 93; * (c) the address io which communication relating to the factory may be sent; * (d) the nature of the manufacturing process- (i) carried on in the factory during the last twelve months in the case offactories in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act, and * (ii) to be carried on in the factory during the next twelve months in the case of all factories; * (e) the total rated horse power installed or to be installed in the factory, which shall not include the rated horsc power of any separate standby plant; * (f) the name of the rnanager of the factory for the purposes of this Act; * (g) the number of workers likely to be employed in the factory: * (h) the average number of workers per day employed during the last twelve months in the case of a factory in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act; * (i) such other particulars as may be prescribed. (2) In respect of all establishments, which come within the scope of the Act for the first time the occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1) within thirty days from the date of the commencement of this Act. (3) Before a factory engaged in a manufacturing process which is ordinarily carried out for less than one hundred and eighty working days in the year, resumes working, thc occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1) that least thirty days before the date of the commencement of work. 4) Whenever a new manager is appointed, the cccupies shall send to the Inspector a written notice and to the Chief Inspector a copy thereof within seven days from the date on which such person takes over charge. (5) During a period for which no person has been designated as manager of a factory or during which the person designated does not manage the factory, any person found acting as manager, or if no such person is found, the occupier himself, shall be deemed to be the manager of the factory for the purposes of this Act. CHAPTER II The Inspecting Staff Section 7A. General duties of the occupier. – (1) Every occupier shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and w,elfare of all workers while they are at work in the factory. 2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), the matters to which such duty extends, shall include- * (a) the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work in the factory that are safe and without risks to health; * (b) the arrangement in the factory for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances; * (c) the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervisions as are necessary to ensure the health and safety of all workers at work; * (d) the maintenance of all places of work in the factory in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of such means of access to, and egress from, such place as are safe and without such risks; * (e) the provision, maintenance or monitoring of such working environment in the factory for the workers that is safe, without risks to health and adequate as regards facilities and arrangements for their welfare at work. 3) Except in such cases as may be prescribed, every occupier shall prepare, and, as often as may be appropriate, revise, a written statement of his general policy with respect to the health and safety of the workers at work and the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out thatpolicy, and to bring the statement and any revision thereof to the notice of all the workers in such manner as may be prescribed. Section 7B. General duties of manufacturers, etc. , as regards articles and sub-stancesfor use in factories. – (1) Every person who designs, manufactures, imports or supplies any article for use in any factory shall- * (a) ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the article is so designed and constructed as to be safe and withovt risks to the health of the workers when properly used; * (b) carry out or arrange for tlle carrying out of such tests and examination as may be considered necessary for the effective implementation f the provisions of clause (a); * (c) take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that adequate information will be available- * (i) in connection with the use of the article in any factory; * (ii) about the use for which it is designed and tested; and * (iii) about any conditions necessary to ensure that the article, when put to such use, will be safe, and without risks to the health of the workers: Provided that where an article is designed or manufactured outside India, it shall be obligatory on the part of the importer to see- * (a) that the article conforms to the same standards if such article is manufactuted in India, or * (b) if the standards adopted in the country outside for the manufacture of such article is above the standards adopted in India, that the article conforms to such standards (2) Every person, who undertakes to design or manufacture any article for use in any factory, may carry out or arrange for the carrying out of necessary research with a view to the discovery and, so far as is reasonably practicable, the elimination or minimisation of any risks to the health or safety of the workers to which the design or article may give rise. (3) Nothing contained in sub-sections (1) and (2) shall be construed to require a person to repeat the testing examination or research which has been carried out otherwise than by him or at his instance on so far as it is reasonable for him to rely on the results thereof for the purposes of the said sub-sections. 4) And duty imposed on any person by sub-sections (1) and (2) shall extend only to things done in the course of business carried on by him and to matters within his control. (5) Where a person designs, manufactures, imports or supplies an aricle on the basis of a written undertaking by the user of such article to take the steps specified in such undertaking to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the article will be. safe and without risks to the health of the workers when properly used, the undertaking shall have the effect of relieving the person designing, manufacturing, importing or supplying the article from the duty imposed by clause (a) of sub-section (1) to such extent as is reasonably having regard to the terms of the undertaking. 6) For the purposes of this section, an article is not to be regarded as properly used if it is used without regard to any information or advice relating to its use which as been made available by the person who has designed, manufactured, imported or supplied the article. Section 8. Inspectors. – (1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint such persons as possessing the prescribed qualification to be Inspectors for the purposes of this Act and may assign to them such local limits as it may think fit. (2) The State Government may, by notification in the Offlcial Gazette, appoint any person to be a Chief Inspector who shall, in addition to powers conferred on Chief Inspector under this Act, exercise the powers of an Inspector throughout the State. 2A) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint as many Additional Chief Inspectors, Joint Chief Inspectors and Deputy Chief Inspectors and as many other offlcers as it thinks fit to assist the Chief Inspector and to exercise such of the powers of the Chief Inspector as may be specified in such notification. (2B) Every additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector, Deputy Chief Inspector and every other officer appointment under sub-section (2A) shall, in addition to the powers of a Chief Inspector specified in the notification by which he is appointed, exercise the power of an Inspector throughout the State. 3) No person shall be appointed under sub-section (1), sub-section (2), sub-section (2A) or sub-section (5), or having been so appointed, shall continue to hold office, who is or becomes directly or indirectly interested in a factory or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith. (4) Every District Magistrate shall be an Inspector for his district. (5) The State Government may also, by notification as aforesaid, appoint such public officers as it thinks fit to be additional Inspectors for all or any of the purposes of this Act, within such local limits as it may assign to them respectively. 6) In any area where there are more Inspectors than one the State Government may, by notification as aforesaid, declare the powers which such Inspectors shall respectively exercise and the Inspector to whom the prescribed notices are to be sent. (7) Every Chief Inspector, Additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector, Deputy Chief Inspector, Inspector and every other officer appointed under this section, shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of the Indian Penal Code (XLV of 1860), and shall be offlcially subordinate to such authority as the State Government may specify in this behalf. Section 9. Powers of Inspectors. –
Subject to any rules made in this behalf, an Inspector may, within the local limits for which he is appointed,- * (a) enter with such assistants, being persons in the service of the Government, or any local or other public authority or with an expert, as he thinks fit, any place which is used, or which he has reason to believe, is used as a factory; * (b) make examination of the premises, plant, machinery, article or substance; * (c) inquire into any accident or dangerous occurrence, whether resulting in bodily injury, disability or not, and take on the spot or otherwise statements of any person which he may consider necessary for such inquiry; * (d) require the production of any prescribed register or any other document relating to the factory; * (e) seize, or take copies of, any register, record or other document or any portion thereof, as he may consider necessary in respect of any offence under this Act, which he has reason to believe, has been committed; * (f) direct the occupier that any premises or any part thereof, or anything lying therein, shall be left undisturbed (whether generally or in partticular respects) for so long as is necessary for the purpose of any examination under clause (b); * (g) take measurements and photographs and make such recordings as he considers necessary for the purpose of any examination under clause (b), taking with him any necessary instrument or equipment; * (h) in case of any article of substance found in any premises, being an article or substance which appears to him as having caused or is likely to cause danger to the health or safety of the workers, direct it to be dismantled or subject it to any process or test (but not so as to damage or destroy it unless the same is, in the circumstances necessary, for carrying out the purposes of this Act), and take possession of any such article or substance or a part thereof, and detain it for so long as is necessary for such examination; * (i) exercise such other powers as may be prescribed. Section 10. Certifying Surgeons. – 1) The State Government may appoint qualified medical practitioners to be certifying surgeons for the purposes of this Act within such local limits or for such factory or class or description of factories as it may assign to them respectively. (2) A certifying surgeon may, with the approval of the State Government, authorise any qualified medical practitioner to exercise any of his powers under this Act for such period as the certifying surgeon may specify and subject to such conditions as the State Government may think fit to impose, and references in this Act to a certifying surgeon shall be deemed to include references to any qualified medical practitioner when so authorised. 3) No person shall be appointed to be, or authorised to exercise the powers of, a certifying surgeon, or having been so appointed or authorised, continue to exercise such powers, who is or becomes the occupier of a factory or is or becomes directly or indirectly interested therein or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith or is otherwise in the employ of the factory: Provided that the State Government may, by order in writing and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order exempt any person or class of persons from the provisions of this sub-section in respect of any factory or class or description of factories. 4) The certifying surgeon shall carry out such duties as may be prescribed in connection with- * (a) the examination and certification of young persons under this Act; * (b) the examination of persons engaged in factories in such dangerous Occupations or processes as may be prescribed; * (c) the exercising of such medical supervisions as may be prescribed for any factory or class or description of factories where- * (i) cases of illness have occurred, which it is reasonable to believe are due to the nature of the manufacturing process carried on, or other conditions of work prevailing, therein; * (ii) by reason of any change in the manufacturing process carried on or in the substances used therein or by reason of the adoption of any new manufacturing process, or of any new substance for use in a manufacturing process, there is a likelihood of injury to the health of workers employed in that manufacturing process; * (iii) young persons are, or are about to be, employed in any work which is likely to cause injury to their health. Explanation. – In this section “qualified medical practitioner” means a person holding a qualification granted by an authority specified in the Schedule to the Indian Medical Degrees Act, 1916 (VII of 1916), or in the Schedule to the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933 (XXVI1 of 1933). CHAPTER III. – Health Section 11. Cleanliness. – 1) Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvial arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in particular- * (a) accumulation of dirt and refuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or by any other effective method from the floors and benches of workrooms and from staircases and passages and disposed of in a suitable manner; * (b) the fiLoor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in every week by washing, using disinfectant where necessary, or by some other effective method; * (c) where a floor is liable to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process to such extent as is capable of being drained, effective means of drainage shall be provided as maintained; * (d) all inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and all walls, sides and tops of passages and staircases shall- (i) where they are ‘tpainted otherwise than with washable water paint or varnished, be repainted or revarnished at least once in every period of five years; * (i-a) where they are painted with washable water paint, be repainted with at least one coat of such paint at least once in every period ofthree years and washed at least once in every period of six months; * (ii) where they are painted or varnished or where they have smooth impervious surfaces, be cleaned at least one in every period of fourteen months by such methods as may be prescribed; * (iii) in any other case, be kept whitewashed, or colour washed, and the whitewashing or colourwashing shall be carried out at least once in every period of fourteen months; * (dd) all doors and window-frames and other wooden or metallic framework and shutters shall be kept painted or varnished and the painting or varnishing shall be carried out at least once in every period of five years; * (e) the dates on which the processes required by clause (d) are carried out shall be entered in the prescribed register. 2) If, in view of the nature of the operations carried on in a factory or class or description of factories or any part of a factory or class or description of factories, it is not possible for the occupier to comply with all or any of the provisions of sub-section (1), the State Government may by order exempt such factory or class or descriptien of factories or part from any of the provisions of that sub-section and specify alternative methods for keeping the factory in a clean state. Section 12. Disposal of wastes and effluents. – (1) Effective arrangements shall be made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing process carried on therein, so as to render them innocuous, and for their disposal. (2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the arrangements to be made under sub-section (1) or requiring that the arrangements made in accordance with sub-section (1) shall be approved by such authority as may be prescribed. Section 13. Ventilation and temperature. – 1) Effect and suitable provisions shall be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom- * (a) adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air, and * (b) such a temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health; and in particular, * (i) walls and roofs shall be of such material and so designed that such temperature shall not be exceeded but kept as low as practicable; * (ii) where the nature of the work carried on in the factories involves, or is likely to involve, the production of excessively high temperature, such adequate measures as are practicable shall be taken to protect the workers therefrom, by separating the process, which produces such temperature from the workroom, by insulating the hot parts or by other effective means. (2) The State Government may prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation and reasonable temperature for any factory or class or description of factories or parts thereof and direct that proper measuring instruments, at such places and in such position as may be specified, shall be provided and such records, as may be prescribed, shall be maintained. 3) If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high temperature in any factory can be reduced by the adoption of suitable measures, he may, without prejudice to the rules made under sub-section (2), serve on the occupier, an order in writing specifying the measures which, in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date. Section 14. Dust and fume. – (1) In every factory in which, by reason of the manufacturing process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a nature and to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers employed therein, or any dust in substantial quantities, effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom, and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it shall be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or other impurity, and such point shall be enclosed so far as possible. 2) In any factory no stationary internal combustion engine shall be operated unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air, and no other internal combustion engine shall be operated in any room ualess effective measures have been taken to prevent such accumulation offumes therefrom as are likely to be injurious to workers employed in the room. Section 15. Artificial humidification. – (1) In respect of all factories in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the State Government may make rules,- * (a) prescribing standards of humidification; * (b) regulatingthe methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air; * (c) directing prescribed tests for determining the humidityof the air to be correctly carried out and recorded; * (d) prescribing methods to be adopted for securing adequate ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms. 2) In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the water used for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply, or other source of drinking water, or shall he effectively purified before it is so used. (3) If it appears to an Inspector that the water used in a factory for increasing humidity which is required to be effectively purified under sub-section (2) is not effectively purified he may serve on the manager of the factory an order in writing, specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before specified date. Section 16. Overcrowding. – No room in any factory shall be overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein. 2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there shall be in every workroom of a factory in existence on the date of commencement of this Act at least 9. 9 cubic metres and of a factory built after the commencement ofthis Act at least 14. 2 cubic metres of space for every worker employed therein, and for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be taken of anyspace which is more than 4. 2 metres above the level of the fioor of the room. (3) If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there shall be posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying the maximum number of workers who may, in compliance with the Provisions of this section, be employed in the room. 4) The Chief Inspector may, by order in writing exempt, subject to such conditions, if any, as he may thing fit to impose, any workroom from the provisions of this section, if he is satisfied that compliance therewith in respect of the room is unnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein. Section 17. Lighting. – (1) In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing, there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both. (2) In every factory all glazed windows and skylights used for the lighting of the workroom shall be kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces and, so far as compliance with the provisions of any rules made under sub-section (3) of section 13 will allow, free from obstruction. 3) In every factory effective provision shall, so far as is practicable, be made for the prevention of- * (a) glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from a smooth or polished surface; * (b) the formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eye-strain or the risk of accident to any worker. (4) The State Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and suitable lighting for factories or for any class or description offactories or for any manufacturing process. Section 18. Drinking water. – (1) In every factory effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employed therein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. (2) All such points shall be legibly marked “drinking water” in a language understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory and no such points shall be situated within 1[six metres of any washing place, urinal, latrine, pittoon, open drain carrying sullage or effluent or any other source of contamination unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief Inspector. (3) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather by effective means and for distribution thereof. (4) In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories the State Government may make rules for securing compliance with the provisions of sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) and for the examination by prescribed authorities of the supply and distribution of drinking water in factories. Section 19. Latrines and urinals. – (1) In every factory- (a) sufficient latrine and urinal accommodation of prescribed types shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times while they are at the factory; * (b) separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers; * (c) such accommodation shall be adequately lighted and ventilated and no latrine or urinal shall, unless specially exempted in writing by the Chief Inspector, communicate with any workroom except through an intervening open space or ventilated passage; * (d) all such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition at all times; * (e) sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty it would be to keep clean all latrines, urinals and washing places. 2) In every factory wherein more than twohundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed- * (a) all latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types; * (b) the floors and internal walls, up to a height of ninety centimetres of the latrines and urinals and the sanitary blocks shall be laid in glazed tiles or otherwise finished to provide a smooth polished impervious surface; * (c) without prejudice to the provisions of clauses (d) and (e) of sub-section (1), the fioors, portions of the walls and blocks so laid or finished and the sanitary pans of latrines and urinals shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at least once in every seven days with suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both. (3) The State Government may prescribe the number of latrines and urinals to be provided in any factory in proportion to the number of male and female workers ordinarily employed therein, and provide for such further matters in respect of sanitation in factories, including the obligation of workers in this regard, as it considers necessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein. Section 20. Spittoons. – (1) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition. 2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the type and numbers of spittoons to be provided and their location in any factory and provide for such further matters relating to their maintenance in a clean and hygienic condition. (3) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoons provided for the purpose and a notice containing this provision and the penalty for its violation shall be prominently displayed at suitable places in the premises. (4) Whoever spits in contravention of sub-section (3) shall be punishable with fine not exceeding five rupees. CHAPTER IV. – Safety Section 21. Fencing of machinery. – 1) In every factory the following, namely- * (i) every moving part of a prime-mover and every fiywheel connected to a prime-mover, whether the prime-mover or flywheel is in the engine-house or not; * (ii) the headrace and tailrace of every water-wheel and water-turbine; * (iii) any part of a stock bar which projects beyond the head stock of a lathe; and * (iv) unless they are in such position or of such construction as to be safe to every person employed in the factory as they would be if they were securely fenced, the following, namely:- * (a) every part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary convertor; * (b) every part of transmission machinery; and (c) every dangerous part of any other machinery; shall be securely fenced by safeguards of a substantial construction which shall be constantly maintained and kept in position while the parts of machinery they are fencing, are in motion or in use: Provided that for the purpose of determining whether any part of machinery in such position or is of such construction as to be safe as aforesaid, account shall not be taken of any occasion when- * (i) it is necessary to make an examination of any part of the machinery aforesaid while it is in motion or, as a result of such examination to carry out lubrication or other adjusting operation while the machinery is in motion, being an examination of operation which it is necessary to be carried out while that part of the machinery is in motion. r * (ii) in the case of any part of a transmission machinery used in such process as may be prescribed (being a process of a continuous nature, the carrying on of which shall be or is likely to be substantially interfered with by the stoppage of that part of the machinery), it is necessary to make an examination of such part of the machinery while it is in motion or, as a result of such examination, to carry out any mounting or shipping of belts or lubrication, or other adjusting operation while tlle machinery is in motion, and such examination or operation is made or carried out in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 22. (2) The State Government may by rules prescribe such further precautions as it may consider necessary in respect of any particular machinery or part thereof or exempt, subject to such condition as may be prescribed, for securing the sefety ofthe workers, any particular machinery or part thereof from the Provisions of this section. Section 22. Work on or near machinery in motion. – 1) Where in any factory it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery referred to in section 21, while the machinery is in motion, or, as a result of such examination, to carry out- * (a) in a case referred to in clause (i) of the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 21, lubrication or other adjusting operation; or * (b) in a case referred to in clause (ii) of the proviso aforesaid, any mounting or shipping of belts or lubrication or other adjusting operation, while the machinery is in motion, such – examination or operation shall be made or carried out only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing (which shall be supplied by the occupier) whose name has been recorded in the register prescribed in this behalf and who has been furnished with a certificate of his appointment, and while he is so engaged,- * (a) such worker shall not handle a belt at a moving pulley unless- * (i) the elt is not more than fifteen centimetres in width; * (ii) the pulley is normally for the purpose of drive and not merely a fiy-wheel or balance wheel (in which case belt is not permissible); * (iii) the belt joint is either laced or fiush with the belt; * (iv) the belt, including the joint and the pulley rim, are in good repair; * (v) there is reasonable clearance between the pulley and any fixed plant or structure; * (vi) secure foothold and, where necessary, secure handhold, are provided for the operator; and * (vii) any ladder in use for carrying out any examination or operation aforesaid is securely fixed or lashed or is firmly held by a second person ; * (b) without prejudice to any other provision of this Act relating to the fencing of machinery, every set screw, bolt and key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinions and all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing in motion with which such worker would otherwise be liable to come into contact, shall be securely fenced to prevent such contact. (2) No woman or young person shall be allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of a prime-mover or of any transmission machinery while prime-mover or transmission machinery is in motion, or to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of any machine if the cleaning, lubrication or adjustment thereof would expose the woman or young person to risk of injury from any moving part either of that machine or of any adjacent machinery. 3) The State Government may, by notification in the Offlcial Gazette prohibit, in any specified factory or class or description of factories, the cleaning, lubricating or adjusting by any person of specified parts of machinery when those palts are in motion. Section 23. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines. – (1) No young person shall be required or allowed to work at any machine to which this section applies, unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers arising in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed, and- (a) has received sufficient training in work at the machine, or (b) is under adequate supervision by a person who has a thorough knowledge and experience of the machine. 2) Sub-section (1) shall apply to such machines as may be prescribed by the State Government, being machines which in its opinion are of such a dangerous character that young persons ought not to work at them unless the foregoing requirements are complied with. Section 24. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power. – (1) In every factory- * (a) suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance shall be provided and maintained and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys wnich form part of the transmission machinery, and such gear or appliances shall be so constructed, placed and maintained so as to prevent the belt fiom creeping back on to the first pulley; * (b) driving belts whennot in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride upon shafting in motion. 2) In every factory suitable devices for cutting off power in emergencies from running machinerv shall be provided and maintained in every workroom: Provided that in respect of factories in operation before the commencement of this Act, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply only to workrooms in which electricity is used as power. (3) When a device, which can inadvertently shift from “off” to “on” position, is provided in a factory- to cut off power, arrangements shall be provided for locking the device in safe position to prevent accidental starting of the transmission machinery or other machines to which the device it fitted. Section 25. Self-acting machines. –
No traversing part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall, if the space over which it runs is a space over which any person is liable to pass, whether in the course of his employment or otherwise, be allowed to run on its outwards or inward traverse within a distance forty-five centimetres from any fixed structure which is not part of the machine: Provided that the Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a machine installed before the commencement of this Act which does not comply with the requirements of this section on such conditions for ensuring safety as he may think fit to impose. Section 26. Casing of new machinery. – 1) In all machinery driven by power and installed in any factory after the commencement of this Act,- * (a) every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger; * (b) all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does not require frequent adjustment while in motion shall be completely encased, unless it is so situated as to be as safe as it would be if it were completely encased. (2) Whoever sells or lets on hire or, agent of a seller or hirer, causes or procures to be sold or let on hire, for use in a factory any machinery driven by power which does not comply with the provisions of sub-section (1) or any rules made under sub-section (3), shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees or with both. 3) The State Government may make rules specifying further safeguards to be provided in respect of any other dangerous part of any particular machine or class or description of machines. Section 27. Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers. – No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton-opener is at work: Provided that if the feed-end of a cotton-opener is in a room separated from the delivery end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the Inspector may in any particular case specify in writing, women and children may be employed on the side of the partition where the feed-end is situated. Section 28. Hoist and lifts. – (1) In every factory- * (a) every hoist and lift shall be- (i) of good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength; * (ii) properly maintained, and shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of six months, and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed particulars of every such examination; * (b) every hoistway and liftway shall be sufficiently protected by an enclosure fitted with gates, and the hoist or lift and every such enclosure shall be so constructed as to prevent any person or thing from being trapped between any part of the hoist or lift and any fixed structure or moving part; * (c) the maximum safe working load shall be plainly marked on every hoist or lift, and no load greater than such load shall be carried thereon; * (d) the cage of every hoist or lift used for carrying persons shall be fitted with a gate on each side from which access is afforded to a landing; * (e) every gate referred to in clause (b) or clause (d) shall be fitted with inter-locking or other efficient device to secure that the gate cannot be opened except when the cage is at the landing and that the cage cannot be moved unless the gate is closed. 2) The following additional requirements shall apply to hoists and lifts used for carrying persons and installed or reconstructed in a factory after the commencement of this Act, namely:- * (a) where the cage is supported by rope or chain, there shall be at least two ropes or chains separately connected with the cage and balance weight, and each rope or chain with its attachments shall be capable of carrying the whole weight of the cage together with its maximum load; * (b) efficient devices shall be provided and maintained capable of supporting the cage together with its maximum load in the event of breakage of the ropes, chains or attachments; * (c) an efficient automatic device shall be provided and maintained to prevent the cage from over-running. 3) The Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a hoist or lift installed in a factory before the commencement of this Act which does not fully comply with the provisions of sub-section (1) upon such conditions for ensuring safety as he may think fit to impose. (4) The State Government may, if in respect of any class or description of hoist or lift, is of opinion that it would be unreasonable to enforce any requirements of sub-sections (1) and (2), by order direct that such requirement shall not apply to such class or description of hoist or lift. Explanation. – For the purposes of this section, no lifting machine or appliance shall be deemed to be a hoist or lift unless it has a platform or cage, the direction or movement of which is restricted by a guide or guides. Section 29. Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles. (1) In any factory the following provisions shall be complied with in respect of every lifting machine (other than a hoist and lift) and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for the purpose of raising or lowering persons, goods or materials:- * (a) all parts, including the working gear, whether fixed or movable, of every lifting machine and every chain, rope or lifting tackle shall be- * (i) of good construction, sound material and adequate strength and free from defects; * (ii) properly maintained; and * (iii) thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of twelve months, or at such intervals as the Chief Inspector may specify in writing, and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed particulars of every such examination; * (b) no lifting achine and no chain, rope or lifting tackle shall, except for the purpose of test, be loaded beyond the safe working load which shall be plainly marked there on together with an identification mark and duly entered in the prescribed register; and where this is not practicable, a table showing the safe working load of every kind and size of lifting machine or chain, rope of lifting tackle in use, shall be displayed in prominent position on the premises; * (c) while any person is employed or working on or near the wheel track of a travelling crane in any place where he would be liable to be struck by the crane, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the crane does not approach within six metres of that place. (2) The State Government may make rules in respect of any lifting machine or any chain, rope or lifting tackle used in factories- * (a) prescribing further requirements to be compiled with in addition to those set out in this section ; * (b) providing for exemption from compliance with all or any of the requirements of this section, where in its opinion, such compliance is unnecessary or impracticable. 3) For the purposes of this section a lifting machine or a chain, rope or lifting tackle shall be deemed to have been thoroughly examined if a visual examination supplemented, if necessary, by other means and by the dismantling of parts of the gear, has been carried out as carefully as the conditions permit in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the safety of the parts examined. Explanation. – In this section,- * (a) “lifting machine” means a crane, crab, winch, teagle, pully block, gin wheel, transporter or runway; * (b) “lifting tackle” means any chain sling, rope sling, hook, shackle, swivel, coupling, socket, clamp, tray or similar appliance, whether fixed or movable, used in connection with the raising or lowering of persons, or loads by use lifting machines. Section 30. Revolving machinery. – 1) In every factory in which the process of grinding is carried on there shall be permanently affixed to or placed ear each machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel, the speed of the shaft or spindle upon which the wheel is mounted, and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or spindle necessary to secure such safe working peripheral speed. (2) The speeds indicated in notices under sub-section (1) shall not be exceeded. (3) Effective measure shall be taken in every factory to ensure that the safe working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, cage, basket, flywheel pulley, disc or similar appliance driven by power is not exceeded. Section 31. Pressure plant. – 1) If in any factory, any plant or machinery or any part thereof is operated at a pressure above atmospheric pressure, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure of such plant or machinery or part is not exceeded. (2) The State Government may make rules providing for the examination and testing of any plant or machinery such as is referred to in sub-section (1) and prescribing such other safety measures in relation thereto as may in its opinion, be necessary in any factory or class or description of factories. (3) The State Government may, by rules, exempt, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, any part of any plant or machinery referred to in sub-section (1) from the provisions of this section. Section 32. Floors, stairs and means of access. – In every factory- (a) all floors, steps, stairs, passengers and gangways shall be of sound construction, and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to slip and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails; * (b) there shall, so far as is reasonably practicable, be provided, and maintained safe means of access to every place at which any person is at any time required to work; * (c) when any person has to work at a height from where he is likely to fall, provision shall be made, so far as is reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise, to ensure the safety of the person so working. Section 33. Pits, sumps, openings in floors, etc. – (1) In every factory every fixed vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which, by reason of its depth, situation, construction or contents, is or may be a source of danger, shall be either securely covered or securely fenced. 2) The State Government may, by order in writing, exempt, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of factories in respect of any vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening from compliance with the provisions of this section. Section 34. Excessive weights. – (1) No person shall be employed in any factory to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him an injury. (2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the maximum weights which may be lifted, carried or moved by adult men, adult women, adolescents and children employed in factories or in any class or description of factories or in carrying on in any specified process. Section 35. Protection of eyes. –
In respect of any such manufacturing process carried on in any factory as may be prescribed, being a process which involves- * (a) risk of injury to the eyes from particles or fragments thrown off in the course of the process, or * (b) risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to excessive light, the State Government may by rules require that effective screens or suitable goggles shall be provided for the protection of persons employed on, or in the immediate vicinity of, the process. Section 36. Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases, etc. – (1) No person shall be required or allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in any factory in which any gas, fume, vapour or dust is likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk to persons being overcome thereby, unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate size or other effective means of egress. 2) No person shall be required or allowed to enter any confined space as is referred to in sub-section (1), until all practicable measures have been taken to remove any gas, fume, vapour or dust, which may be present so as to bring its level within the permissible limits and to prevent any ingress of such gas, fume, vapour or dust and unless- * (a) a certificate in writing has been given by a competent person, based on a test carried out by himself that the space is reasonably free from dangerous gas, fume, vapour or dust: or * (b) such person is wearing suitable breathing apparatus and a belt securely attached to a rope the free end of which is held by a person outside the confined space. Section 36A. Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light. – In any factory- * (a) no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space unless adequate safety devices are provided; and * (b) if any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in such chambers tank, vat, pipe, flue or other confined space, no lamp or light other than that of flame-proof construction shall be permitted to be used therein. Section 37. Explosive or inflammable dust, gas, etc. –
Where in any factory any manufacturing process produces dust, gas, fume or vapour of such character and to such extent as to be likely to explode on ignition, all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent any such explosion by- * (a) effective enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process; * (b) removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust, gas, fume or vapour; * (c) exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition. (2) Where in any factory the plant or machinery used in a process such as is referred to in sub-section (1), is not so constructed as to withstand the probable pressure which such an explosion as aforesaid would produce, all practicable measures shall be taken to restrict the spread and effects of the explosion by the provision in the plant or machinery of chokes, baffles, vents or other effective appliances. 3) Where any part of the plant or machinery in a factory contains any explosive or inflammable gas or vapour under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, that part shall not be opened except in accordance with the following provisions, namely:- * (a) before the fastening of any joint of any pipe connected with the part or the fastening of the cover of any opening into the part is loosened, any flow of the gas or vapour into the part of any such pipe shall be effectively stopped by a stop-valve or other means; * (b) before any such fastening as aforesaid is removed, all practicable measures shall be taken to reduce the pressure of the gas or vapour in the part or pipe to a atmospheric pressure; * (c) where any such fastening as aforesaid has been loosened or removed effective measures shall be taken to prevent any explosive or inflammable gas or vapour from entering the part or pipe until the fastening has been secured, or, as the case may be, securely replaced: Provided that the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply in the case of plant or machinery installed in the open air. 4) No plant, tank or vessel which contains or has contained any explosive or inflammable substance shall be subjected, in any factory, to any welding, brazing, soldering or cutting operation which involves the application of heat unless adequate measures have first been taken to remove such substance and any fumes arising therefrom or to render such substance and fumes non- explosive or non-inflammable and no such substance shall be allowed to enter such plant, tank or vessel after any such operation until the metal has cooled sufficiently to prevent any risk of igniting the substance. (5) The State Government may by rules exempt, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of factories from compliance with all or any of the provisions of this section. Section 38. Precautions in case of fire. – 1) In every factory, all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent outbreak of fire and its spread, both internally and externally, and to provide and maintain- * (a) safe means of escape for all persons in the event of a fire, and * (b) the necessary equipment and facilities for extinguishing fire. (2) Effective measures shall be taken to ensure that in every factory all the workers are familiar with the means of escape in case of fire and have been adequately trained in the routine to be following in such cases. (3) The State Government may make rules, in respect of any factory or class or description of factories, requiring the measures to be adopted to give effect to the provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2). 4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (a) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), if the Chief Inspector, having regard to the nature of the work carried on in any factory, the construction of such factory, special risk to life or safety, or any other circumstances, is of the opinion that the measures provided in the factory, whether as prescribed or not, for the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), are inadequate, he may, by order in writing, require that such additional measures a