Human Medical Experimentation Without knowing, humans in the past, in the present, and possibly in the future have been unaware of the medical tests that have and will be administrated upon them. There are many reasons worthy of attention, good and bad. Humans are very curious at why, how, and what happens if limits are pushed. Most of the time we decide limits for other people, such as our children, we protect them and teach them our known boundaries and limits. As humans mature, the boundaries and limits are stretched and new boundaries are set in place. Some people use moral values to set their own limits.
Laws and principles are formed by the limits we humans set for every human in that particular area or society. Concerning the safety of a whole society, sometimes humans push these limits to discover whether or not an issue is a threat. This is the time human testing takes place. Soviet human nuclear experiments have been unofficially reported that 45,000 Soviet soldiers were deliberately exposed in the year 1954 to radiation from a 40,000 ton atomic bomb weapon from 25,000 feet above the ground. This experiment was designed to test military hardware and soldiers in case of a nuclear attack.
British newspapers report that nearly 6,000 stillborn babies and dead infants were sent from Canada, Hong Kong, South America, Australia, the US and UK without parent’s permission for use in nuclear experiments between the years of 1940 and 1970. According to reports, the US Department of Energy were using these bodies and body parts for tests involving the radioactivity levels of Strontium 90 in humans (Ong, n. d. ). In 1911 Dr. Hideyo Nogushi of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research published data on giving an inactive syphilis preparation to 146 hospital patients to develop a skin test for syphilis.
In 1919 inmates of San Quentin State Prison were the subjects of testicular transplant experiments. Recently executed inmates had their testicles transplanted into the abdomen and scrotums of live inmates. 1932 to 1973 the Tuskegee Project diagnoses 400 African American males with syphilis. The experiment was to follow the progression of the disease throughout a human’s life. The test subjects were not notified of their disease, only which they would receive medical care and health insurance throughout the testing period.
At Cornell University Medical School scientists administer an angina drug study on how placebos have an effect on humans. This is the first account of the placebo effect in the US. In 1944 Dr. Alf Alving tries to develop a cure for malaria by injecting psychotic patients with the disease to have test subjects to find the cure quickly. The disease was hindering Allied soldiers in WWII. In 1945 the Manhattan Project begins studies on Fluoride’s effects on humans. In 1945-1955 the largest human study on Fluoride’s health effects through drinking water (Veracity, 2006). 1955 is the year when U. S.
Army sponsors experiments in which LSD and other psychotropic drugs are given to psychotic patients so scientists can study the effects these drugs have on the brain. In 1963 scientists irradiate the testes of 232 prisoners in order to test the effects that radiation has on the function of the male testes. In 1978 the CDC begins trials targeted at promiscuous homosexual men to study the hepatitis B vaccines. This experiment has been linked to cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma, a new strain of Herpes virus, now common in AIDS patients. In 1990 400,000 U. S. Soldiers are ordered to participate in a nerve agent medication experiment.
This drug is now believed to be the cause for the Gulf War Syndrome effects and symptoms. In 2000 Californians are paid $1000 to participate in a perchlorate testing. The dose of the test subjects is 83 times greater than the safe dose of perchlorate. In 2005 the ACS admits that foster children were unknowingly the test subjects for AIDS drug trials (Veracity, 2006). In very many cases of human experimentation the tests performed are to examine how a toxin or medication reacts to the human host. In other opinions, one might say this is wrong and should not be conducted.
The truth behind all of this is that no one knows what might have happened. Maybe if none of this ever took place, then everything would be just as it is now. Maybe if any of these experiments are not conducted then diseases would still be present, and humans would still be fighting a losing battle against disease and famine. Many good and moral reasons are in the human mind to find out the limit of our existence. There are varying opinions whether the studies were right or wrong, it is obvious that there was valuable information learned and many benefits from these types of studies.
These studies have become so controversial because it is hard to distinguish if the benefits were worth the risk and lose of human lives. ? References Ong, C. (n. d. ). Human Nuclear Experiments. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Nuclear Files: http://www. nuclearfiles. org/menu/key-issues/ethics/issues/scientific/human-nuclear-experiments. htm Veracity, D. (2006, March 6). Human Medical Experimentation in the United States: The Shocking True History of Modern Medicine and Psychiatry . Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Natural News: http://www. naturalnews. com/019187. html