Although there isn’t a particular name for this it is clearly talked about and discussed in the psychodynamic approach. Attachment is clearly influential in both professional and personal settings. As a Social Worker knowing about the attachment theory can help to make the right steps in order to protect the child and the family, Attachment has been defined as “an affectionate bond between two individuals that endures through space and time and serves to join them emotionally” Kennell 1976. Attachment helps the child Attain his or her full potential.
Sort out what he or she perceives Think logically Develop a conscience Become self reliant Cope with stress and frustration Handle fear and worry Develop future relationships Reduce jealousy Fahlberg, 1985, page 7. Personal growth is a psychological concept which has become increasingly popular since the development of Rogers Client Centred Therapy of 1940’s. For personal growth to occur the self concept, self esteem and identities must already be established, but in turn, personal growth alters people’s conceptions of their own selves.
Every individual has their own conditions of worth, which could include, good manners – saying please and thank you. Being loyal to family and friends – by being honest, being nice to others and having respect and also by being truthful and helping others. In order for an individual to be a likeable person the individual must be trustworthy, honest and by being able to give out respect to others. During practice there is a chance that one may need to deal or work alongside people who have committed a crime that you don’t agree with, for example: sex offenders, child abusers or child murders.
As a professional the worker is to act professional at all times and if struggling then to speak with colleagues and other services to signpost the service user in the direction of others that may be able to offer extra guidance and advice. I have worked with a young 16 year old girl who has been in care most of her life due to sexual abuse from her step father. Her brother aged 10 committed suicide in the family home. The 16 year old did not know what to do, she mainly blamed herself for the abuse she suffered at the hands of her step father and also blamed herself for the death of her brother.
Looking back at the theories used in this module I can see why the young person blames them self for the way they are feeling. They are not to blame but don’t feel that they could think it is someone else’s fault. At the start of this module I was oblivious to the ongoing issues within the society relating to power, race and religion and difference is a white global issue. As a white woman brought up as a catholic, I realise and understand that there are other religions and cultures and different beliefs and values. I understand that Christianity is not the only religion.
At the end of the module I have realised that we all believe in different values and opinions, which all roll into the same answer, we are all human who have their own power and privileges to make their own decisions, to be respectful and non-judgemental. A life event that has given me a deeper understanding of attachment was at the age of twelve when I lost my father. I grew closer to my mother, completing this module has made me aware of all the changes we go through as we grow older. The diagram below is the Humanist Models by Maslow.
BEING NEEDS SELF ACT ESTEEM BELONGINGS SAFETY PHYSIOLOGICAL DEFICIT NEEDS Cognitive development is about how a child’s thinking changes over time. Below we can see Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. AGE STAGE CHARACTERISTICS 0 – 2 years SENSORIMOTOR Understanding the world through the senses. Object concept acquired. 2 – 6 years PRE – OPERATIONAL Beginning of thought and language but from an ego-centric perspective. 6 – 12 years CONCRETE OPERATIONAL Mental manipulation possible but tied to the concrete conservation achieved. 12 years +.
FORMAL OPERATIONAL Manipulation of abstract ideas, logical systematic thinking, reflective thought. “The diagram below depicts a typical, successful interaction between mother and child. The interaction is initiated by the child’s need and consequent expression of displeasure and completed by the mothers’ response. The Arousal Relaxation Cycle: NEED TRUST QUIESCENCE SECURITY DISPLEASURE ATTACHMENT SATISFACTION OF NEED Fahlberg, 1985, page 16. The Positive Interaction Cycle: Parent initiates positive interactions with the child SELF WORTH.
SELF ESTEEM Child responds positively Fahlberg, 1985, page 18. Erikson (1995) saw people developing their identity as they move through stages or ‘crisis’ points in their lives. Erikson saw individuals moving through the stages by virtue of increasing age, however, the successful progression through each stage, by the negotiation of the particular ‘crisis’ to a positive outcome, ensures healthy development. Erik Erikson had eight stages of development these were: 1. First year 2. Second and third years 3. Fourth and fifth years 4. Six to eleven 5.
Adolescence 6. Young adulthood (20s and 30s) 7. Middle adulthood (40 to 60s) 8. Late adulthood BIBLIOGRAPHY Dominelli, Payne and Adams, Social Work – Themes Issues and Critical Debates, 2nd Edition, 2002 Cairns, Attachment Trauma and Resilience – Therapeutic Caring for Children, 2008 Howe, Child Abuse and Neglect – Attachment Development and Intervention, 2005 Oak, Social Work and Social Perspectives, 2009 Fahlberg, Attachment and Separation, 1985 Wilson and James, The Child Protection Handbook, 2008 Rutter, Maternal Deprivation Reassessed, 1972.
Rogers, A Therapists view of Psychotherapy on becoming a person, 1986 Rogers, Client Centred Therapy, 2001 Wilkins, Person Centred Therapy in focus, 2003 Messer and Millar, Exploring Developmental Psychology – from Infancy to Adolescence, 1999 Crawford and Walker, Social Work and Human Development, 2nd Edition, 2008 Beckett, Essential Theory for Social Work Practice, 2007 Beckett, Human Growth and Development, 2007 Sugarman, Life – Span Development Frameworks, Accounts and Strategies, 2006.