Running head: Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology Anne Solomon Diversity and Cultural Factors in Psychology/PSY450 Professor Iman Turner July 3, 2011 Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology Cross-cultural psychology is the critical and comparative study of the effects on human psychology. Cross-cultural psychology draws its conclusions from at least two samples that represent at least two cultural groups. Because cross-cultural psychology is about comparisons, it is crucial to use critical thinking. Cross-cultural psychology studies cross-cultural interactions, differences, and their psychological sameness as well.
Cross-cultural psychology is an interdisciplinary field in anthropology and psychology. Cross-cultural psychology investigates an individual life through a profound perceptive of the appropriate cultural perspective with one’s history and the cultural vitals that deep-rooted within that models a person’s cognition, feeling, inspiration, behavior, and psychopathologies in cross-culturally contradictory habits. Cross-cultural psychology is different from general psychology in that general psychology is the applied and academic field that studies human behavior.
Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain human thought, behavior, and emotion. Psychology is a blend of philosophy and biology; whereas cross-cultural psychology defines certain behaviors as it pertains to one’s culture. Cross-cultural psychology evades the presentation of culture as a phony self-determining unpredictable whereas general psychology and its sub-discipline, excess culture as surroundings noise filtered out in order to pinpoint universal psychological mechanisms.
Furthermore, common psychology and cross-cultural psychology are infamous in the midst of social sciences for marginalizing culture in this manner. Cultural psychology supports the view that culture and mind are constitutive parts of each other and that humans are automatic in becoming cultural beings by good quality of the fact that they have the ability to make sense of themselves and the world one lives in, both independently and cooperatively, to live within hose systems of meanings, and to organize ones psyches in and around themselves. Consequently, to divide the mind from its cultural circumstance and study it is basically to remove the mind from everything that makes it mindful. Thus the mission of cultural psychology is to have psychology move beyond the pointless nature versus nurture discuss and pay closer attention to what is important in the interface of nature and nurture, at least where higher level mental phenomena are concerned.
Cultural psychology tries to achieve integrating cultural world-views to develop and determine psychological assembly rather than intermittently trying to clarify cultural issues with theoretically universal psychological ideology. By their very nature, words are both descriptive and evaluative; they simultaneously convey objective description and subjective evaluation (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Critical thinking—exhibited by metathinking, thoughts about thoughts—offers a dominant variable between the bidirectional influence of attitudes and language.
By remembering that imagery are in no way entirely unbiased, one’s personal values and biases effect one’s language, personal value judgments do not reflect objective truths, and recognizing other people’s values through his or her language, critical thinking proposes a solution to the consequence of language. Other biasing and subjective phenomena that critical thinking helps to prevent are: discriminate between dichotomous variables and continual variables, the similarity-uniqueness paradox, the difference between causation and correlation, the assimilation bias, and the Barnum effect.
Even though this is not a complete list, the list includes a wide range of fallacies and biases that can be addressed through the use of critical thinking. In sum, critical thinking does not possess all of the solutions, but critical thinking does offer a means by which to identify and reject the careless answers in the examination of a psychological comparison of cultures. Cross-cultural psychology can be separated into two groups: quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative refers to the measurement of particular aspects of human behavior from a comparative perspective. These observations need to be examined empirically through three measures of tendency: mode, median, and mean. The mode is the most common score. The median is the middle of all scores lined up in order, and if there are two in the center one would add and divide by two. The mean is the average of all scores so one would add all and divide by the number of scores added up. Measurement includes four types: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
Nominal refers to identification, or name not an amount, ordinal refers to a rank in order, interval indicates an amount, and ratio indicates a true amount of the present variable (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Methods of research include: observation, the survey method, experimental studies, content analysis, focus groups, and meta-analysis. Each method is used for a particular type of circumstance, For example, the survey method can be used to gather quantitative information about how many times people eat on a daily basis within two contrasting cultures. However, David and Susan (2001) hypothesize “… trong theoretical and conceptual frameworks are needed, integrating constructs from the different research traditions and disciplines” (p. 45) in order to surmount the shortfalls of constricted research methods and build a diverse structure from which to compare cultures. Conclusion In conclusion, cross-cultural psychology studies cross-cultural interactions, differences, and their psychological sameness. Cross-cultural psychology is different from general psychology in that general psychology is the applied and academic field that studies human behavior.
Cross-cultural psychology is mainly a method of comparing cultures and how cultures affect psychology. Moreover, the methods used by researchers in the field of cross-cultural psychology are categorized as quantitative or qualitative research. These observations need to be examined empirically through three measures of tendency: mode, median, and mean. Finally, cross-cultural psychology examines many differences between two or more cultures that exist all over the world and how these differences and similarities affect one’s psychological structure therefore it is important to make sure that nothing is lost in translation.
Some words in one language can mean something else in another language. References (Anonymous 2004 Journal of cross-cultural psychology)Anonymous (2004). Journal of cross-cultural psychology. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32(1), 60. Retrieved June 22, 2011, from Hospitality & Tourism Complete database. (David L Susan F G 2001 An integrative framework for cross-cultural consumer behavior. )David, L. , & Susan, F. G. (2001). An integrative framework for cross-cultural consumer behavior. International Marketing Review, 18(1), 45.
Retrieved June 22, 2011, from Hospitality & Tourism Complete database. (Feist J Feist G 2006 Theories of personality)Feist, J. , & Feist, G. (2006). Theories of personality (6th ed. ). Boston: McGraw Hill. (Shiraev E B Levy D A 2010 Cross-cultural psychology: Crtitcal thinking and contemporary applications)Shiraev, E. B. , & Levy , D. A. (2010). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications (4th ed. ). Boston: McGraw Hill. If you need to type anything after the reference list then start it on this page